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Hyacinth is a beautiful, graceful flower that blooms in early spring, when the first rays of the sun warm the earth after hibernation.
Graceful and delicate, hyacinths amaze with the abundance and variety of color shades, ranging from pale (yellow, pink, white) to dark purple and even black plants.
It is a versatile flower that can live at home and also thrive in outdoor garden areas.
People call hyacinth the rain flower. The plant belongs to the lily family and is of 30 species. Their homeland is the Mediterranean and South Asia.
The plant appeared in Europe at the beginning of the 6th century and immediately won the recognition of the elite strata of society due to its wonderful aroma and rich blue color.
In the next century, hyacinths were already grown on a large scale, and from the 18th century there were already more than 2 thousand varieties (simple, fragrant, terry, etc.).
Today the main suppliers of plant bulbs are the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.
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Bulbs are commonly used for planting hyacinths, although seed propagation is also possible.
It is best to select medium-sized bulbs (large ones are recommended for forcing), elastic and dense, not affected by diseases or pests.
Planting should begin in October: if planted earlier, then, under warm weather, the bulbs will begin to germinate and die with the first frost.
But it also makes no sense to delay planting too much: they will take root poorly and bloom later.
The plot must be open and sunny. You should not plant the plant close to trees and large shrubs: their roots will interfere with the hyacinth, taking most of the nutrients from the soil. The place can be even or slightly with a slope: this way the moisture will drain, and not stagnate.
The soil must be prepared in advance: add mineral fertilizers and humus to it, the notes are by no means fresh manure.
If your soil in your garden is too wet, prone to stagnant water, and acidic, then sand, lime should be added to it, and the area should also be drained. Wood ash can be a useful additive. The soil should be loose, light, neutral.
Before planting hyacinth bulbs, it is recommended to protect them from diseases and pests by holding them for 10-15 minutes in the following solution:
- 0.2% topsin-m suspension;
- 0.1% decis solution;
- 0.1% actar (1 tablet per 10 liters of water).
To disinfect the bulbs, you can use another, more well-known remedy: a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
After that, the bulbs are immediately planted in shallow holes (10-20 cm) at a distance of 10-15 cm.
Leave about 20 cm between the rows. Fill the bottom of the hole with clean river sand (5 cm) and press the onion into it.
Then sprinkle a little sand on top, and then cover with soil. So the bulb will be more reliably protected from decay and various infections.
Before the onset of cold weather and frost, it is better to cover the planting with sawdust, dry peat, humus or spruce branches. Do not forget to carefully open them with the first rays of the spring sun, as hyacinth sprouts appear quite early.
It is better to plant the later varieties first, although the difference between the flowering of the early, middle and late varieties is only a week.
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Hyacinths require careful maintenance: only then will they delight you with lush flowering. The soil around the plantings should be clean, loosened; in a dry season, it should be moistened to a depth of 15-20 cm.
During the growing season, it is recommended to feed the soil three times a day. As a preventive measure, it is necessary to cull plants (2-3 times), cutting off diseased peduncles with a sharp knife or cutting off flowers at the end of flowering.
Apply fertilizers in dry or dissolved form, having previously well moistened the soil. The first top dressing is applied at the beginning of flower growth (a solution of 20-25 g of nitrate and 15-20 g of superphosphate per 1 sq. M of the plot).
The second - during the formation of buds (30-35 g of superphosphate plus 15-20 g of potassium sulfate). The third feeding is carried out at the very end of flowering (30-35 g of superphosphate plus the same amount of potassium sulfate).
You can also use microfertilizers, adding them the same amount as for tulips. At the end of the procedure, the soil should be loosened with a hoe.
Post-flowering and bulb storage
It is better not to leave bulbs of European manufacturers for wintering in the ground. In our conditions, they can successfully overwinter, but they will bloom every year worse, and subsequently they will die altogether.
Experts recommend digging them up immediately when the leaves turn yellow. The end of June is considered the best time to start preparing hyacinths for winter.
Digging will also allow you to inspect each bulb, calibrate, followed by processing in order to prevent protection from various pests and diseases.
The storage of the bulbs is essential for the successful cultivation of hyacinths. It is at this time that a new life is born in the bulb: the process of forming inflorescences begins.
It is important to follow all stages of storing future flowers:
- dug out bulbs must be ventilated and dried in a darkened room at a temperature of 20ºC (5-7 days);
- then they should be cleaned of soil, calibrated and separate the children;
- put the selected bulbs in a box in two layers. If the bulbs are few, they can be stored in a signed paper bag.
Important! It is better not to separate very small shoots from the bulbs!
Further, the storage of the bulbs is divided into 2 stages:
- for about 2 months you need to store them indoors at an elevated temperature (25-26º);
- in the last month the temperature drops to 17º.
It is necessary to maintain the humidity in the room and ventilate it regularly. Low humidity can dry out the bulbs.
The entire storage period is approximately 95 days. Another important nuance: before planting, you need to hold the bulbs in a cool room so that they get used to the low temperature.
As a rule, root shoots form around the bulb, so you need to plant very carefully without damaging them. If there are no shoots, then it is necessary to induce their formation by wiping the base of the bulb with a clean and dry cloth.
Hyacinth reproduces mainly by children, i.e. small onions.
It is possible with seeds, but in gardening this method is almost never practiced. Each adult onion produces up to 4 babies annually.
They are carefully separated from the mother in the summer and planted in the ground at the end of August. After 2-3 years, the bulbs mature and begin to bloom.
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Diseases and pests
Improper care leads to the fact that the plant begins to hurt. For example, too much watering, insufficient lighting and drafts cause early yellowing of the leaves.
When watering, you should not pour water on an unopened bud: it will get sick and will not open. Shorter shelf life can slow down plant growth.
Sometimes gardeners are faced with the fact that the plant does not bloom. This can happen due to mistakes made when leaving. For instance:
- planted very small bulbs;
- stored bulbs at very high temperatures;
- brought out into the bright sun too early.
Hyacinth is most often affected by yellow bacterial rot, which turns the bulbs into mucus and has a pungent, unpleasant odor.
Such bulbs should be destroyed, and the hole should be etched with a 5% formalin solution or bleach.
After that, the plant can be planted in this place only after a few years.
In order for hyacinths to delight you with lush and violent flowering, follow all stages of planting, storage and growing of plants.
In this case, your flower bed will turn into a multi-colored fragrant carpet that will leave an unforgettable impression for the whole year.