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Aphids in review: white, black, domestic and other species

Aphids in review: white, black, domestic and other species


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Aphids are a large family of sucking pests that are part of the Hemiptera order. Exists a huge number of varieties of aphids, some of them settle and damage only certain crops, others are omnivorous and can inhabit most plants.

You can meet various representatives of aphids in almost every region of the world. Of course far away not all aphids live in Europe... We will introduce you to the most common varieties.

General information

Aphids settle on plants and begin to suck the juices from them, forming necrotic areas.

One - a single individual will not cause serious harm, but the problem is that small pests multiply quickly and form numerous colonies. In this regard, it is necessary to undertake various methods and methods of struggle.

The larger the aphid population, the more plants will die due to their activity. Some species even ranked as quarantine pests, for example, grape phylloxera. You can see how different types of aphids look in the photos posted in our article.

Other species form galls and other plant pathologies.

Peach

Two subspecies are known - the peach aphid and the greenhouse (aka tobacco and green) aphid.

Big

The founder has a rounded brownish-gray body, up to 5 mm long. The head is black with short antennae. There are two tubercles on the abdomen and chest. The male is of the same color, but smaller. The wings are missing.

The winged virgin is distinguished by a shorter body length - up to 4.5 mm, the color of the head and chest is black, the back and abdomen are gray and brown. The wingless virgin has a gray pear-shaped body, covered, like the head, with black spots. The legs are bright - yellow and orange.

Eggs are orange at first, which gradually darkens and turns brown. After a few days, it darkens, the eggs become black.

  • Geographic distribution. Steppe regions and Crimea.
  • What plants are found? Prefers fruit and nut trees - cherry plum, peach, almond, apricot, plum.
  • Features of development and life cycle. They have a monoecious development cycle. Large clusters of eggs are sent for wintering, located on the inner side of large branches and under the bark of the trunk. In April, larvae appear and begin to feed actively, going through the development cycle to an adult within a month.

    From the founder, 50-80 larvae appear, from wingless virgins on average - 30. The third and subsequent generations reproduce very intensively. Winged virgins appear in the middle of summer and begin to actively scatter to other trees, forming more and more new colonies.

    If left unchecked, by August, aphid populations will completely cover all trees in the garden, settling on the inside of leaves and branches. During the season, 8-10 generations of the pest are formed. Males are born in the fall and fertilize females to form hibernating eggs.

  • What harm does it do? Sucking sap from trees, aphids cannot completely destroy the plant. However, its activity weakens the defenses of the tree, which leads to the development of various viral diseases.
    In addition, it gives way to sooty fungi that settle on the sweet secretions of aphids. Externally, a fungal invasion is manifested by black wet spots.

Green or tobacco peach

The founder has an oval body, greenish-yellow in color, sometimes with a pink tint. In length it reaches no more than 2.5 mm.

The wingless virgin is smaller, the body is colored pink, green-yellow or light green. Eyes are red, antennae are light and short... The average length is 1.5 - 2 mm.

The winged virgin differs from the wingless, the main color of the body is yellow-green, the head and chest are black. The wings are colorless and transparent.

The eggs are elongated, elliptical in shape. The color is black with a metallic sheen.

  • Geographic distribution. North America, Asia (especially Japan, China and India), Eastern and Western Europe, Southern Urals.
  • What plants are found? A very indiscriminate species that lives on peaches, cherry plums, plums, tobacco, cabbage, cucumbers, eggplants, potatoes, peppers, radishes, dill and parsley, lettuce and many other plants, including greenhouse crops and medicinal herbs.
  • Features of development. Development is fully cyclical or incompletely cyclical (while living in greenhouses). The founding larvae emerge from the overwintered eggs in March - April. The air temperature must be at least 20 °. They begin to feed on the kidneys. Development to a sexually mature individual from 18 to 28 days. The founder gives about 30-60 eggs of offspring. The maximum population increase is observed in the middle of summer. Up to 12 generations can develop per season. Eggs spend winter at the base of the kidneys.
  • What harm does it do? The most significant harmfulness is observed on young shoots and various vegetable crops, as well as tobacco. The leaves are curled, wrinkled, and dried out areas appear. It is very harmful to flowers, which, as a result, dry up and fall off.

Potato big

The wingless virgin has an oval torsopointed at the back. It is colored red or green. Length is not more than 4 mm. Antennae and tail are long, in body color.

The winged virgin is small, up to 3.5 mm long. The body is light green, the legs and antennae are chestnut.

  • Geographic distribution. Almost everywhere. Originally appeared in North America.
  • What plants are found? As a polyphage, it is omnivorous, but prefers potatoes, tomatoes, cabbage, beets, as well as greenhouse and indoor plants.
  • Features of development. Incomplete development cycle. Reproduction is only parthenogenetic.

    In spring, wingless individuals appear and settle on the inner side of leaf blades of forage crops. Wintering takes place on weeds and in the soil or in warm rooms.

    During the season, there is a constant change of wingless and winged generations. All other forms are missing.

  • What harm does it do? This type of aphid can spread about 50 varieties of viral diseases.

Apple green

The egg is light greenish, gradually darkens until it becomes black. The founder has an oval body with a sharp back tip. Colored green, reddish or chestnut head.

The Wingless Virgin is very similar to the founder. Smaller winged virgin, has a green belly. Legs, tail, chest and head are black.

The amphigonous female has no wings, the body is yellow with a brown or green tint. The tail and ends of the antennae are black. The male differs from the amphigonous female only in smaller size.

  • Geographic distribution. Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia.
  • What plants are found? Prefers pome fruit trees - cotoneaster, apple trees, medlar, pears, quince, irgu, mountain ash, hawthorn.
  • What does the apple green aphid look like, look at the photo.

  • Features of development. During the season, several generations are replaced, differing morphologically. The larvae of the founders emerge from the egg during the period of leaf bud opening.

    One individual gives up to 120 wingless virgins. Their development period is 9-13 days. In June, winged individuals appear, they begin to spread the population to different trees.

    The number of generations depends on the habitat climate and ranges from 6 generations in cold regions to 17 in hot ones. Mating and laying of wintering eggs takes place in October.

  • What harm does it do? Young seedlings suffer the most. But mature trees also suffer quite a lot of damage. Leaves curl, spots form on the fruits, branches and shoots are deformed.

Read about the fight against aphids using folk remedies here.

Rose green

All forms and stages of development are not very different from each other. Any individual has an elliptical green body., brown long antennae, sword-shaped elongated tail.

  • Geographic distribution. It lives almost everywhere.
  • What plants are found? In addition to roses and rose hips, aphids can settle on strawberries, pears and apple trees.
  • Features of development. It goes through a full cycle. Hibernates on branches in the egg stage. The founders produce on average about 80 eggs each. It reproduces in greenhouses and greenhouses all year round.
  • What harm does it do? They inhibit the growth of bushes, the leaves curl, the buds do not bloom, weakened plants do not tolerate the winter cold and the attack of viruses poorly.

Sheet gallic

Wingless females have an oval bodycolored yellow or pale green. Antennae are long, dark. Winged females are much smaller, possessing a pair of transparent wings. The body is brownish brown.

  • Geographic distribution. Everywhere.
  • What plants are found? White, red and black currants.
  • Features of development. Full cycle.
  • What harm does it do? Sucking the juices from the leaves, forms galls on them - burgundy or yellow swelling. Most of all damages young bushes, the population is able to destroy the plant.

For plant protection, aphid control chemicals can be used.

Beetroot or legume

Egg - black, elliptical... The founder and the wingless virgin have an oval body, widened at the sides.

It is colored brown, black or green, covered with a coating that resembles wax. In winged individuals, the head, antennae and chest are black, the abdomen is lighter.

  • Geographic distribution. Europe, North America, Central Asia and Transcaucasia.
  • What plants are found? Prefers beets, jasmine, euonymus, beans, poppy seeds, viburnum, spring vetch, sunflowers and potatoes.
  • Features of development. Alternation of generations throughout the growing season of forage plants, the last generation mates and lays hibernating eggs.
  • What harm does it do? Leaves wrinkle and curl, the plant is inhibited in growth and may die. Transfers various viral diseases.

Cucumber (melon)

The elongated body with a sharp hind tip is colored in different shades of green. Antennae and tarsi black.

Melon aphid photo.

  • Geographic distribution. Everywhere.
  • What plants are found? Melons, cucumbers, beets, cotton, tobacco, peanuts, sesame, citrus fruits, eucalyptus.
  • Features of development. Parthenogenetic reproduction, development is incompletely cyclical. Several generations of asexual virgins change during the season. Fertility is 40-50 individuals from the female.
  • The harm caused. This variety is one of the most harmful. Causes great damage to plants due to high fertility.

Cabbage

It has a broadly oval pale green body, short dark antennae.

Cabbage aphid photo.

  • Geographic distribution. In almost all countries, in Russia it is absent in subtropical regions.
  • What plants are found? Inhabits mainly crucifers, especially radishes and cabbage.
  • Development. In a warm climate, development is incomplete, in other regions - a full cycle. From 6 to 30 generations appear per season.
  • What harm does it do? Multiplying en masse, it sticks to the whole plant, which leads to death.

Grape phylloxera

The body is oval, yellow or brown. Antennae and proboscis are very short.

  • Geographic distribution. Areas of viticulture in Europe, North America, Africa and Asia.
  • What plants are found? Inhabits only all types of grapes. The leafy form does not settle on pubescent varieties.
  • Development. Root and leaf forms go through a full cycle. One leaf female is capable of producing up to 500 eggs. Up to 9 generations are replaced during the season.
  • What harm does it do? Phyloxera is a quarantine pest. Galls appear on the roots, deformation on the leaves. The population is capable of completely destroying the vineyard.

Carrot

The elongated oval body is pale green in color, the antennae are short and light, as are the tarsi.

  • Geographic distribution. Everywhere.
  • What plants are found? On carrots and other umbrella plants.
  • Development. Complete life cycle.
  • What harm does it do? The leaves curl, the nutrition of the root crops deteriorates, so the quality and quantity of the crop suffers.

Poplar (poplar) white

Individuals have an oval body of white or yellow color. Winged females are only white.

  • Geographic distribution. Central Asia, Western Europe, Iran, Western Siberia.
  • What plants are found? On black, pyramidal and other types of poplar.
  • Development. Full cycle.
  • Harmfulness. Drying of buds, curling of leaves, weakening of trees, especially young ones.

Hermes

The founder has a shiny black body. Subsequent generations are covered with white fluffy hairs.

  • Geographic distribution. Wherever there are conifers.
  • What plants are found? Any conifers, especially spruce, pines, larch and cedar.
  • Development. Incomplete. 4-5 generations appear per season.
  • Harmfulness. They disrupt the development and fruiting of trees, weakening the protective abilities and reducing the decorative effect.

Mealy (hairy)

The wingless female has a pinkish - cream body, oval in shape. Numerous bristles are located on the sides. The whole body is covered with a snow-white coating, reminiscent of flour.

The winged female differs from the wingless female only in the presence of wings.

  • Geographic location. Everywhere.
  • What plants are found? Prefers citrus fruits, grapes, most indoor and greenhouse plants.
  • Development. The female can lay up to 2 thousand eggs, from which larvae soon appear. They are mobile and creep over all the surrounding plants, sucking the juice out of them. At home and in greenhouses, development and reproduction is continuous.
  • Harmfulness. Deformation of branches and stems, drying and dropping of buds and leaves, inhibition of development, weakening of the protective qualities of plants.

Root

The body can be yellow, white or green, egg-shaped. The head, antennae and chest are brown. The whole body is covered with a whitish-yellow coating.that looks like wax.

  • Geographic location. Everywhere.
  • What plants are found? Almost everyone.
  • Development. Wingless females hibernate and hide in the soil. In the spring, larvae are born from them. They subsequently give birth to offspring. Several generations and stages of development are replaced during the season.
  • Harmfulness. Sucking the juices from the adventitious lateral roots, the pest disrupts the normal flow of nutrients to the plant.

As a result, it weakens and cannot fully develop. If you do not take action, the fodder plant will die.

Home or room

Includes several subspecies that differ in color. There are white aphids, red aphids, green and black aphids.

  • Geographic location. Everywhere.
  • What plants are found? Almost all indoor flowers.
  • Development. Full cycle. Reproduction is parthenogenetic and periodically mating of amphigonic individuals. They do not hibernate, they develop all year round.
  • Harmfulness. Leaves, shoots and buds wither and dry up, fall off. Plants stop developing and gradually die.

Conclusion

Aphids can be classified according to the preferences of food plants and habitat. Thus, garden aphids, flower, vegetable and vegetable aphids stand out.

Garden aphids live on fruit trees and berry bushes, causing serious damage to garden plants... This order includes many species of insects that have a variety of colors. The life cycle is most often complete, with the change of different generations. The difference lies in the number of generations and the number of offspring.

Flower aphids prefer flowers and ornamental plants that live in flower gardens, front gardens, flower beds.

The garden aphid settles on various garden plants - vegetables and herbs. The only exception is any kind of onion and garlic.... Onion aphids are absent in nature, since the phytoncides contained in plants scare away insects. This property is often used in the fight against aphids., spraying with onion and garlic infusions is used. Read about how to deal with aphids in the material "The best folk remedies for aphids, part 1 and part 2".

Plant aphid - the concept includes all types of aphids currently known. This insect is ranked among herbivorous pests.

Of course, it is impossible to describe all varieties of aphids in one article, because there are a huge number of them. However, we tried to collect all the most common types.

Useful video!


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