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Spring comes, and with it the annual chores associated with garden work. The greenhouse requires special attention: the frame needs to be repaired, the soil needs to be disinfected and renewed. Gardeners know what excellent results a well-kept greenhouse gives, so they spare no time or money for its preparation.
Preparation of the land in the greenhouse before planting begins in late March or early April and includes a number of mandatory activities: disinfection of the earth, warming up the soil, increasing soil fertility.
What methods of soil disinfection are there?
Disinfection of the soil allows you to protect plants from diseases and pests. Some gardeners naively believe that during winter frosts, all harmful microorganisms die. This is not true.
Bacteria and fungi easily survive low temperatures, and in spring they wake up and continue to develop vigorously, causing irreparable damage to delicate greenhouse crops. So how to treat the greenhouse after winter?
Disinfection Disinfection of the greenhouse in the spring should minimize the risk of disease, but at the same time not damage the quality of the product.
Bleach is used both in autumn, immediately after harvest, and in spring.
This is one of the proven methods of soil disinfection. In autumn, the soil for the greenhouse can be thoroughly shed with a concentrated solution of lime, but in the spring you only need to spray it lightlyso that the composition does not damage the growth of future plants.
In 10 liters of water, you need to dilute 400 g of lime and let it brew for 4 hours. After that, the resulting weak solution should be drained into a spray bottle for spraying the soil, and a thick sediment should be applied to the ceiling and walls of the greenhouse.
Chlorine lime eliminates:
- black legs;
- root knot nematode;
- white rot.
Fumigation of the greenhouse with sulfur - a common way to combat harmful microorganisms. As a result of the combustion of sulfur, oxides of sulfuric and sulfurous acids are released, which effectively fight bacteria. The only drawback of this method is that the formed sulfur dioxide may not completely evaporate: it will remain in the soil and pass into the fruits of the planted plants.
There are two ways to treat sulfur:
Burning sulfur crystals... To process 1 m3 of a greenhouse, you need to take 50-150 g of sulfur (depending on the number of last year's pests). Crystals should be laid out on metal trays, placed in different corners of the greenhouse, and then set on fire.
The use of special sulfur "checkers". They need to be placed in the corners of the greenhouse and ignited.
Important! Both methods require adherence to the simplest security measures. Fumigation must be carried out by a person wearing a gas mask and protective gloves. After ignition of crystals or "checkers" it is impossible to stay in the greenhouse.
It is necessary to maintain a low temperature in the fumigated room - 10-15 ° C. After processing, the greenhouse should be closed, and after 3 days, ventilated.
Disinfection with formalin solution
A month before planting the plants, you can treat the greenhouse 40% formalin solution... Before the procedure, the temperature in the greenhouse should be reduced to 10–12 ° C so that the formalin does not evaporate. Processing is carried out in a gas mask. After the procedure, the temperature in the greenhouse should be increased to 25 ° C, and after a day, the room should be ventilated.
- spider mite;
Copper sulfate treatment
Thorough processing copper sulfate is produced in autumn; in the spring, the walls and ceiling of the greenhouse should be sprayed with a 10% solution of this substance.
Copper sulfate destroys:
- powdery mildew;
- spider mite;
Treatment with special preparations
Stores now offer a large selection of drugs designed to combat with a certain kind of bacteriaso growers can choose the one that suits their greenhouse better. Special compositions are also good in that they do not require a long break: after them, you can continue to work in the greenhouse.
These drugs have a beneficial effect on soil fertility: they fix nitrogen, decompose pesticides, bind heavy metals, produce natural growth hormones.
it the most radical and effective way fight against pathogens: the soil affected by bacteria is completely eliminated and replaced with a new one.
Soil replacement - lesson difficult and expensivetherefore not suitable for large greenhouses.
Important! To reduce costs, only the top layer (5–7 cm) can be replaced, since it is in this layer that all fungi and bacteria are concentrated.
Replacement of planted crops
Gardeners know that different plants are susceptible to different diseases. Therefore, it is sometimes easiest to plant a new culture that is resistant to the pathogens present in the contaminated soil.
Most germs can be removed if carefully spill the soil with boiling water... After watering, the beds need to be covered with plastic wrap so that the steam penetrates into the lower layers of the soil and disinfects them.
Look at the photo: how to process the greenhouse before planting
How to get rid of late blight?
Many gardeners are seriously concerned about the question: how to treat the greenhouse from late blight in the spring?
Phytophthora - a nightmare of any gardener. This is a fungus that infects all nightshade crops - tomatoes, potatoes, eggplants, peppers. Phytophthora is capable of destroying any plant from roots to fruits.
The fruits of a plant affected by late blight can not be eaten, and the plant itself must be immediately pulled out and burned in order to prevent the disease from spreading to healthy bushes. However, such methods often do not bring results: once appeared, late blight can destroy half of the crop.
Important! Prevention of phytophthora should be started in the fall. After harvesting, all plant residues must be carefully removed and burned outside the garden.
If an outbreak of late blight occurs in the greenhouse, you need to treat the soil with a special preparation - "Fitosporin". Before the next planting of plants, treatment should be carried out at least 3 times.
What if the ground is "tired"?
Fatigue of the ground in the greenhouse - this is nothing more than a lack of fertility. Every year, plants take all the nutrients from the earth, impoverishing and weakening it. New crops require nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, potassium and more. Therefore, stocks of nutrients should be replenished.
The easiest way to increase soil fertility is sow greenhouse greenhouse... This is the name of plants that in a short time form a large volume of green mass: phacelia, watercress, vetch, mustard, rye, oats, clover. Their shoots and roots are an excellent source of organic matter and soil microorganisms. 3 kg of such greenery replaces 1.5 kg of manure, which has always been considered the best fertilizer for the soil.
When the green manures emerge and grow, they are cut off and then plowed into the soil to a depth of 2-3 cm. The dead green manure roots become food for worms, which loosen the soil, improve its structure and saturate the soil with air. After 1–2 weeks, the main crops can be planted in the plowed area.
How to fertilize the soil?
In preparing the greenhouse for planting, soil fertilization plays an important role. The gardener can use either organic fertilizers or ready-made mineral complexesthat contain all the necessary nutrients.
Organic fertilizers for the greenhouse
As organic fertilizers river silt, peat, tree bark, reeds, humus, bird droppings, and algae are used. The undoubted advantage of such fertilizers is their naturalness.
They saturate the soil with nutrients and improve the vital functions of beneficial microorganisms. In addition, only with their help it is possible to easily warm up the soil, which will allow the first plants to be planted much earlier.
The most useful fertilizer for the soil is manure. It contains all the nutrients. The soil fertilized with manure becomes loose, light, airy.
Manure can be injected into the ground in both autumn and spring. In the fall, you can use fresh material: until spring it will grind and turn into an excellent food for future plants. But in the spring it is better to use rotted manure: caustic substances contained in fresh material can damage the root system of seedlings.
Fertilization of the soil with mineral fertilizing contributes to a significant increase in plant productivity. But they should be used with caution: the wrong dosage can ruin the entire fertile layer of the earth. A gardener who decides to fertilize greenhouse soil with mineral fertilizing should definitely read the instructions.
There are fertilizers that supply the soil with some specific element: phosphorus, nitrogen or potassium. They are called simple. But they are more popular complex fertilizers, which provide seedlings with a full range of nutrients at once.
Every gardener knows how important it is to prepare the soil in the greenhouse for planting. Indeed, only if all recommendations are carefully followed can you get a good harvest and provide your family with environmentally friendly products for the whole winter.
Watch the video: how to prepare a greenhouse for spring planting, how to process a greenhouse in spring