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Tomato seedlings die if the growing conditions are violated - weakened plants quickly become infected with infectious diseases.
If you find out in time that the seedlings are sick and take action quickly, the seedlings can be saved. What to do so that the gardener's work on growing seedlings is not wasted?
In this article, we will talk about the causes of the ailments of young plants, as well as how to protect the seedlings from diseases and how to properly organize their care.
Why do tomatoes get sick?
Seedling diseases spread with tomato seeds, soil and seed boxes... Thickened plantings with an excess of nitrogen in the soil are especially susceptible to diseases. Poor ventilation, sudden changes in temperature, and excessive humidity favor the spread of diseases.
The appearance of rot at the root
Fungal disease fusarium root rot and rot of the root collar leads to a massive loss of seedlings. In the area of the central root, the root collar and the lower part of the stem, brown ulcers with a bloom of pink are formed.
Pitiasis and Rhizoctoniasis - root and root rot of tomatoes, which affects seedlings on a waterlogged substrate. With pityosis on the stem, a gray mycelium bloom is first noticeable, then the tissues of the root and basal neck darken. With rhizoctonia, depressed brown spots appear on the lower part of the stem... The source of infection is peat in the seedling substrate.
Late blight of tomato roots causes damping off of seedlings - the pathogen affects the root collar, the tissues rot, the plant withers and dies.
Seeds and sprouts infected with fungi can die in the soil - as a result, the impression of a lack of friendly seedlings is created.
For your information. In order to prevent the spread of diseases, before planting, the seeds are soaked for a day in the preparation Pseudobacterin-2. The seedling substrate is disinfected with steam in a water bath.
Solution to the problem: at the first signs of the disease, fungicides are used, dissolved in water for spraying seedlings and watering the soil, providing the seedlings with an influx of fresh air. In severe cases, the soil is washed with clean water or replaced with a new one.
After the pick
For picking, strong, uniformly developed plants without signs of disease are chosen.
Seedlings that are stressed after a pick can die for the following reasons:
- the seedlings were not fed 1–2 days before the pick and were not watered the day before;
- when transplanting, the roots were twisted up.
When diving, the plant is buried in the ground so that the cotyledons touch the soil - thus favorable conditions are created for the formation of adventitious roots, and the stem will not be affected by putrefactive diseases.
Decision: if the seedlings wither after the pick, they are fed with complex fertilizers at the rate of 2 teaspoons per bucket of water, or growth stimulants. If, after transplanting, the roots are bent upward, the plant is transplanted - it is held by the stem and sprinkled with soil.
From the black leg
The seedling blackleg pathogen can develop at temperatures below 18 ºC. Bacterial infection occurs when tissue integrity is compromised. Seedlings can die in a short time.
On seedlings and young plants, necrosis is localized in the lower part of the stem. The infected area turns brown, then wet rot develops.
The pathogen hibernates on plant debris and is spread by insects.
- full-fledged seeds are planted, pre-treated in a weak solution of potassium permanganate;
- seedlings are grown in steamed soil;
- the surface of the soil after sowing the seeds is sprinkled with a layer of sand of 0.5-1 cm.
You can not thicken the planting - it is necessary that the soil and plants are constantly ventilated.
How to solve a problem:
- If the first signs of the disease are found, it is necessary to reduce the humidity of the air and provide ventilation of the crops, reduce watering.
- To dry the soil, pour 2 cm of a mixture of ash and sand on top. In this case, additional roots may form above the affected area of the stem.
For your information. Seedlings in the 5th leaf phase are not infected with blackleg bacteria.
When growing seedlings, the room temperature and the relative humidity of the air are constantly monitored.
Lighting and warmth
Sudden jumps in day and night temperatures contribute to the development of infection... In conditions of insufficient light, seedlings are more susceptible to disease, since they stop absorbing nutrients.
Blackleg develops at a temperature of 18 ºC and waterlogged soil.
Seedlings get sick if the relative humidity in the seedling room is below 60 and above 70%. Dense planting and inadequate ventilation also contribute to the development of disease. Waterlogging of stems and leaves should not be allowed..
Seedlings are watered no more than 2 times a week, as the soil dries up - frequent and abundant watering leads to putrefactive diseases.
Grown up seedlings are not recommended to be sprayed from a spray bottle - at the same time, the soil layer with the roots remains dry, and conditions for the development of rot are created in the wet upper layer. Waterlogging of the soil in combination with low temperatures leads to the development of diseases.
If the soil mixture for seedlings is prepared incorrectly - too dense, water- and air-tight, with high acidity, favorable conditions are created for the development of pathogens.
The causative agents of diseases persist in peat and plant debris. Before planting, soil prepared independently or purchased in a store must be disinfected with steam.
In what substrate cannot be planted tomato seeds:
- with an unpleasant musty smell;
- sticky or very tight;
- with a large amount of residues of undecomposed plants;
- with an exceeded sand content;
- with traces of mold on the packaging.
Important. Tomatoes cannot be sown in peat soil with an expired shelf life - it can spontaneously heat up, which is dangerous for young roots.
Errors in the manufacture of soil mixtures that lead to diseases of seedlings:
- You cannot add fresh manure, unburned leaves and tea leaves - organic matter begins to decompose, the temperature of the soil rises.
- If clay gets into the mixture, it compacts the substrate - oxygen access to the roots is limited.
A high concentration of nutrients in the seedling soil can provoke seedling diseases. Moderately fertile soil is prepared for seedlings, and nutrition is evenly provided during watering.
Seedlings die from an excess of fertilizers... In this case, the substrate with the seedlings is washed with plenty of clean water, which should flow freely through the drainage holes.
What to do to save the seedlings?
If the cases of infection are rare, the diseased seedling is removed along with a lump of earth, and Fitosporin or a solution of potassium permanganate is injected into the soil with a syringe without a needle.
Seedlings are watered with Bordeaux liquid (1%) or warm water with one of the drugs dissolved in it:
- 1.5-2 g of potassium permanganate per 10 liters of water;
- 5 g of copper sulfate per 10 liters of water.
At the very beginning of the development of the black leg, the seedlings can be saved - the seedlings are carefully dug out, the roots are washed in a solution of potassium permanganate or Fitosporin and transplanted into a new soil. The air temperature must be brought to normal - no higher than 25 ºC, watering must be reduced, the seedlings must be regularly ventilated.
Radical problem solving
Plants heavily affected by root rot are destroyed, and the rest of the seedlings are watered with a solution of foundationol.
Important. In case the seedlings get sick en masse, the best way is to destroy all diseased plants, disinfect the box, fill it with steam disinfected soil and sow new seeds.
Seedling protection measures are aimed at avoiding disease and mass death of seedlings. Optimal modes of temperature, humidity of soil and air, disinfection of the substrate, mineral nutrition create favorable conditions for increasing the resistance of seedlings to diseases.
We suggest watching a video about why tomato seedlings die and what to do in different cases: