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Orchids are wonderful exotic plants. They attract with bizarre shapes and shades of flowers that last for a long time. Not surprisingly, many would like to see them at home or in the office. Caring for orchids and their reproduction is not the easiest thing in floriculture.
However, if you have patience and strictly follow the recommendations, the reproduction of orchids by children will become feasible for an ordinary lover.
On what parts of the plant can it form?
There are 2 types of orchid growth:
- Monopodial - 1 vertically growing stem, leaves appear at the top (at the point of growth) in turn. Peduncles or aerial roots (Phalaenopsis, Brassavola) are laid in the sinuses.
- Sympodial - a large number of shoots (pseudobulb) growing horizontally and united by a rhizome (rhizome). Vertical shoots appear above the ground, eventually turning into pseudobulbs (Dendrobium, Cattleya).
Babies are small processes that grow on peduncles, stems, or at the root collar. They grow for about 5-6 months, release leaves and roots. After they are separated from the mother and planted separately. The new plant retains all the varietal qualities of the original specimen.
How to understand that a small plant is growing?
Not all species have babies. Most often they are found in the genera Phalaenopsis and Dendrobium. When a small process appears on the peduncle from the axil of the kidney or on the stem, it is difficult to determine what will grow. Either a new peduncle, or aerial roots, or maybe a baby (cake). And only after a few weeks we will confidently make a conclusion on a definite form.
If this is a baby, then she will have to grow leaves and roots for several more months, feeding on the mother plant. After that, she will be able to start an independent life.
Description and conditions
No matter where the cake appears in the plant, it always emerges from a dormant bud. And she wakes up if one of two factors acts on her: extreme or ideal.
Only if all conditions (temperature, humidity, lighting and watering) are met, it becomes possible to get a baby.
In this case, the following will be ideal:
- temperature 20-28 ° C;
- humidity 85%;
- diffused sunlight 12-13 hours a day;
- between waterings, the root system should be dry for about two days.
Such an organization of watering is necessary for the orchid for the process of photosynthesis, in which, in addition to leaves, the root system is involved.
At the base of the root
The development of the baby at the root collar of a plant is always associated with extreme conditions. Dying, the orchid seeks to continue its genus, giving its last strength to the development of the root cake.
On the peduncle
Along with flowers, there are several dormant buds on the peduncle. Then one of them increases in size, the scale leaves and a sprout appears. At first it is difficult to say what it will be: a bud or a baby. As it grows, leaves and roots are formed - a new cake.
On the stem
Dendrobium orchid is easily propagated by children. They themselves grow on mature pseudobulbs. You just need to wait until 3-4 leaves grow and roots are formed. To plant a baby from the trunk separately from an adult plant, it is enough, slowly twisting, to separate it from the stem. The cake comes off easily and is ready to plant.
In order for children to develop normally, it is necessary to adhere to the optimal conditions listed above. It is useful to spray daily with a very fine spray bottle. In addition, the orchid is fed weekly with fertilizers with a high nitrogen content.
Attention! Fertilizers are applied after watering to wet roots so as not to burn them!
The baby is raised until it has 3-4 leaves and the roots will grow back by about 5 cm. To speed up their formation, the cake is carefully wrapped in sphagnum, securing it with a thread. Spraying daily keeps the moss moist, creating a favorable environment for root development. After that, the cake is separated from the mother plant and planted in its own pot.
Sometimes it happens that leaves appear on the peduncle, but the roots do not. This is where grafting will help. Wet sphagnum is placed at the bottom of the greenhouse. The faded peduncle is cut off with a pruning shears, rubbed with alcohol. At a distance of 3-4 cm on both sides of the baby, cut off the excess parts. The cut points are sprinkled with crushed charcoal.
Place the stalk on the moss with the cakes facing up. They maintain optimal conditions for development, and after a few months, the baby's roots will grow.
Orchids are gorgeous but whimsical plants. For their successful breeding, you need to know certain rules. Breeding new orchid specimens from babies is not a quick process. It takes 4–5 years from the awakening of the sleeping bud and the growth of the cake to the appearance of flowers. All this time, attention, knowledge and work is required from the florist. But he will be rewarded a hundredfold!