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Cyclamen is a beautiful and hardy plant with green rounded leaves and delicate unusual flowers, the petals of which resemble flames raised upward or the wings of colorful moths. The flower is loved by both experienced and novice growers, thanks to its unusual appearance, not too difficult care and many positive signs associated with its cultivation.
The countries of the Mediterranean coast are considered the birthplace of cyclamen: Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Spain. Also, the flower has long been known in the Crimea, the Caucasus, Turkey and North Africa.
Cyclamen was brought to Europe by English botanists in the 17th century., but only by the beginning of the 19th century, an unusual plant began to be grown as an ornamental.
Cyclamen is a medicinal plant, the healing properties of which are mentioned in the ancient Greek medical treatises of Hippocrates, and in the Georgian annals of the 4th century.
There is an interesting legend that at the dawn of his reign, King Solomon preferred a crown made in the form of a timid pink cyclamen flower, which allowed him to reign long and wisely.
Currently, the plant is widespread in the Mediterranean countries.: from Spain to Iran, in Turkey and Cyprus, in North-East Africa and Somalia, in Ukraine and in the Krasnodar Territory of Russia (in the area of the cities of Tuapse, Goryachy Klyuch, Gelendzhik and Sochi).
Description and characteristics
How to recognize cyclamen among the many popular plants?
Names: what is it called and why?
Its official name cyclamen (Latin Cyclamen) received from the ancient Greeks, who drew attention to the round root of the plant: "kuklos" means "round".
Unofficial plant names such as “alpine violet", Received by him for its unusual appearance and delicate aroma and"sleeping sun"- for the ability to give warmth and joy.
Cyclamen is also called "pork bread" or "pork turnip", Because, despite the poisonous root, pigs are very fond of its tubers," winter gdula "," earthen apple "," Virgin's grass "and" maiden's ear ". In pharmacy use, the name “Duck tuber», Which has Georgian roots.
The main characteristics of the plant:
|Official name||Cyclamen (Latin Cyclamen)|
|Class||Dicotyledonous, spine-petal (spine-petal)|
|Subfamily / family||Myrsinoideae / Primulaceae.|
|View||Includes about 50 types, subdivided into 5 sections.|
|Botanical features||Perennial herb.|
The tuber is thick.
The stem is short underground.
Leaves - aerial, growing from the base, heart-shaped, ovoid or kidney-shaped.
Flowers are single, with long (about 30 cm) pedicels.
The flower is correct, the calyx is five-part bell-shaped, the corolla is also five-part, the lobes are bent back. The colors are predominantly white, pink or purple.
There are 5 stamens, they do not protrude from the corolla tubes, they have wide and short threads. Pestle - 1.
The fruit is a polyspermous spherical capsule, opened with valves.
Ephemeroid (that is, it grows, blooms and bears fruit in the cool season).
|Prevalence||It is widely distributed in the Mediterranean (European and African coasts), along the coast of the Black and Caspian Seas, in the Caucasus, in the Crimea and the Kuban, and in Russia (mainly in the Krasnodar Territory).|
Mainly used as a garden or indoor beautifully flowering plant.
- Cyclamen is easy to recognize for a number of structural features.
- The rhizome is tuberous, the root has a round or slightly depressed shape.
- The stem is short, underground.
- Leaves are leathery, smooth, reaching a length of 10-15 cm, rounded (heart-shaped, kidney-shaped). The color of the inside is deep green, the outside is decorated with a striking silver pattern.
- The petiole is brown, long, and has a reddish tint.
- Flowers are single, bisexual, facing down.
- Pedicel is long (up to 30 cm), curling after flowering.
- The corolla is a white, striped tube and slightly curved lobes with purple dots. It has 5 stamens and 1 pistil.
- Color - from pale pink to deep purple. The aroma is delicate, pleasant.
- Fruits are brown, angular in shape, hidden in a spherical box hanging low above the ground.
- The flowering period is December-May.
Cyclamen is a compact plant that rarely grows above 25-30 cm. It has an unusual flower shape and beautiful patterned leaves.
It grows slowly. The flowering period is followed by a long dormant period, when the flower sheds all the leaves.
Wild cyclamen grows in small bright groups in the shade of forests and on mountain slopes and is characterized by small flowers and compact leaves.
Domestic flowers, as a rule, are hybrid varieties, characterized by large leaves and flowers, as well as varied, including multi-colored, petal color and large, unusually colored.
In natural conditions, it blooms in the winter and rests in the summer heat.
The root system is tuberous.
Spherical or crushed tubers reach 13-15 cm in diameter and up to 60 g in weight. The outside is painted brown.
They have one growth point and many thin roots that grow either over the entire surface of the tuber (European type), or straight down (Persian view).
Important! The growing point is the most vulnerable point of the plant - even a slight damage to it may well lead to the death of the rhizome bulb.
Among novice flower growers, there is an opinion about the capriciousness of cyclamen and the complexity of its cultivation. In fact, the flower is very unpretentious, and the requirements for the content imposed on it are quite simple and easy to fulfill.
When growing cyclamen, remember that the natural conditions for flower growth are different:
- sharp temperature changes, because the Mediterranean climate is characterized by hot sunny days and rather cool nights, as well as hot summers and wet and cold winters;
- not the most nutritious soil.
This made the flower very hardy and prefers coolness.
How long does it live?
With proper care, certain types of cyclamen can live 20 years or more.
Signs and superstitions
Like most domestic plants, cyclamen has not escaped the endowment of "magical" abilities.
It is believed that cyclamen:
- protects its owners from all kinds of evil spells and unkind spells that can be directed both to the house itself and to its inhabitants;
- gives love, harmony and tranquility:
- absorbs stress, helps to stabilize energy;
- attracts inspiration;
- increases self-esteem;
- drives away bad dreams;
- dispels unreasonable fears;
- reduces childish and senile moodiness;
- improves the well-being of family members suffering from diabetes, arrhythmia and atherosclerosis, relieves the male owner from impotence.
Since cyclamen contributes to the formation of independence, it will be very useful in houses where kind, insecure and slightly soft-bodied people live, easily succumbing to other people's influence.
The plant is also well suited for the office, because it can rally colleagues, unite them, teach to listen to each other and find a common language.
Interesting! To activate the positive impact, the acquired cyclamen should be placed in the designated place and continuously look at the very center of the plant for 3-5 minutes, mentally asking the flower for protection.
- a cyclamen leaf placed in a wallet will help increase material well-being; plant sap has similar properties, a small amount of which should be dripped onto the inner surface of the wallet;
- for a quick and easy delivery, a pregnant woman should wear a flower as a decoration, but if the expectant mother stands on the flower with her feet, the birth will be difficult and difficult;
- with proper care of the plant, a childless couple will soon acquire long-awaited babies.
However, you should not expect the help of the flower if the person is negative or has evil intentions.
Types and classification
There are many varieties of cyclamen, although Persian cyclamen and European cyclamen are the most popular as houseplants.
Consider the main characteristics of plant species and features of their structure and care.
It is widely distributed as a house plant.
It grows up to 15-30 cm in height, it is distinguished by a lush, long flowering from October to April. Has no pronounced odor.
It has graceful flowers with petals turned outward. Colors - from light to bright saturated colors, while the pharynx of the flower is often painted in a different shade. The leaves are jagged, decorated with a delicate silvery pattern.
Hybrid dwarf varieties of Persian cyclamen tolerate heat more easily and therefore are very popular among flower growers.
Persian varieties include:
- Umbrella - has an unusual "umbrella" shape of pink flowers;
- Lulu is a small (up to 20 cm) plant with salmon-red flowers and a fringed edge;
- Aurora is a dwarf species that does not grow taller than 15 cm, with pale pink petals and a pleasant scent;
- Victoria is the owner of large white plush flowers with lush crimson fringes around the edges;
- Rococo is a series of varieties with large double flowers of various colors and edging fringes of petals, usually of a different shade;
- Striata is a low variety, growing up to 15-20 cm, with a thin silvery foliage pattern and fragrant two-colored flowers (white with lilac strokes);
- Topaz - large carmine flowers;
- Sylphide - pomegranate flowers with white edging along the edge of the petals;
- Charlie is a strict and laconic variety with snow-white flowers without fringes and a strong refined aroma.
The species is characterized by medium-sized leaves and fragrant flowers, mainly painted in pink-lilac, white or carmine colors.
The plant loves coolness, but - in comparison with the Persian species - European cyclamens are much more tolerant of room temperatures.
It is characterized by the absence of a pronounced flowering period: with proper care, it can bloom for a long time at any time of the year. Grows well on balconies, terraces, subject to protection from direct sunlight.
The main difference is the development of roots throughout the tuber area.
European cyclamens often give offshoots on the tuber, which is used for planting the flower.
European varieties include:
- Green ice - differs in small pink flowers, not exceeding 2 cm in diameter, and small green-silvery leaves;
- Album is a snow-white garden plant, reaching a height of 30 cm and having an original structure of petals, which expand sharply at the very base; characterized by beautiful silvery marble leaves;
- Silver - is the owner of glossy green leaves, decorated with thin chaotic silver stains, and striped pink-lilac flowers;
- Purple (Purpurascens) - got its name for the red-brown color of the lower part of rather small leaves, it is distinguished by the colors of milky and pink-purple colors;
- Carmineolineatum - distinguished by white flowers with a thin stripe of carmine color;
- Lake garda - silvery leaves and pink flowers.
Also called "Neapolitan", it is the most frost-hardy variety, withstanding temperatures as low as -28 ° C. Representatives of this species are most often grown outdoors. It is distinguished by slightly pointed toothed leaves, decorated with a bright silvery-white pattern, and rich pink flowers with a thin purple mark at the base.
It grows very well at home.
This is a long-lived flower, some of its specimens reached the age of 45-50 years.
Ivy cyclamen varieties:
- The white cover is an ornamental variety, growing up to 25 cm, with snow-white, pleasantly smelling flowers and leaves that look like ivy leaves;
- Pink bedspread - characterized by jagged leaves with a clear silvery pattern, blooms magnificently and effectively, releasing graceful pink buds.
Differs in a special color of the leaves - their surface is decorated with an interesting dark spot. It has large and very beautiful bright pink flowers.
- Mauris Dryden - silvery marble foliage with elegant white flowers;
- Roseum - showy flowers of pink-red shades with a dark eye, silvery marble leaves.
Also referred to as "Pontic". It is characterized by small flowers and lack of a pattern on the leaves.
The main distinguishing feature is the angle of the petals: 90 ° instead of 180 °, which is typical for most cyclamens.
The flower leaves are slightly curled and resemble a propeller. Coloring - from carmine pink to pale pink with a purple base.
Leaves are gray-greenish, oval.
It is characterized by a delicate and pleasant honey aroma.
It features the brightest and most colorful combinations of flower petals with an obligatory purple spot at the base.
A large species with large, hard leaves growing straight from the tuber and reaching 15 cm in length and 10 cm in width. Prefers stony soil.
Bright and conspicuous pink flowers appear in September and do not fall until November.
The most fragrant species of the whole family. It has an interesting color of flowers - snow-white petals with purple spots at the base.
Differs in small leaves, decorated with silver spots. The flowers are predominantly light pink, the base of the rosette is purple. Unlike most of its relatives, it has a bad attitude to the sun's rays, preferring a thick shade.
What types of outdoor, what are domestic ones?
What types are annuals, what are perennials?
The easiest types to care for
Useful properties and application
Cyclamen belongs to medicinal, but poisonous plants, the chemical composition of which has not yet been fully understood.
The flower tuber contains cyclamine - a toxic organic compound that, when hydrolyzed, transforms into the substance cyclometrin - and this substance can already be used for treatment, subject to sufficient medical knowledge and serious medical experience.
Also, the tuber contains pentose, leulosin, dextrose, cyclamosin polysaccharide, bitter substances, organic acids, natural oils.
Important! Do not forget that cyclamen is a poisonous plant! Self-medication with cyclamen without first consulting a doctor is unacceptable!
In what form is it used?
Cyclamen is used in a variety of forms, such as:
- infusions - 1 tbsp. l. 0.5 l of boiling water is poured into the crushed root, insisted for at least 3 hours, filtered and placed in a refrigerator, where it can be stored for no more than 2 days;
- alcohol tinctures - 1 g of roots is poured with 10 g of alcohol, covered with a lid and placed in a dark, cool place for 1-2 weeks with periodic shaking;
- vinegar tinctures - crushed roots are poured with vinegar in a ratio of 1:10, insisted for 3 weeks;
- freshly squeezed root juice, which is used for instillation in pure form or diluted with water, it is also possible to add honey;
- cyclamen ash (the root is pre-dried and burned), mixed with vinegar, is used for poultices;
- root cake (left over after squeezing out the juice), often used for applications (necessarily - through several layers of gauze);
- the pulp of the onion (mixed with the juice of the plant) is also used for applications.
Important! For medicinal purposes, adult plants that have reached the age of 3 are suitable.
Cooking and eating recipes
Inflammation in the nasopharynx
A runny nose, respiratory diseases, inflammation in the nasopharynx area are treated with freshly squeezed cyclamen root juice, which is buried in the patient's nose (1-2 drops in each nostril). To enhance the effect of exposure, the patient after the procedure should sit with his head thrown back for about 5 minutes, then drink any warming drink and go to bed.
Soon, the patient will begin to have a severe cough, sneezing, increased sweating, mucus from the nose, which will last for several hours, after which the sick person will fall fast asleep, and after waking up in the morning, he will feel good.
Treatment of gastrointestinal diseases
Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are treated:
- infusion of cyclamen root, which is taken warm in 1 tbsp. 3 times a day after meals for 2-4 days;
- root tincture, which is taken 30 drops 2-3 times a day after meals.
The use of European cyclamen for osteochondrosis
With osteochondrosis, applications are used from the pulp of a European cyclamen bulb, which is rubbed on a grater, laid out on gauze and placed on a sore spot. The procedure is recommended to be repeated for 7 days in a row, after which you should take a break.
Treatment of demodicosis
For the treatment of skin diseases, plant juice is used, diluted in a proportion of 1:20 - for dense, rough skin with a high threshold of sensitivity, up to 1:60 - for thin skin and a low pain threshold.
The classic and most popular proportion is 1:40.
The mixture is applied to the skin for 5-20 minutes. If necessary, repeat the application every other day.
Features of use in children, during pregnancy and breastfeeding
As a medicine, cyclamen is categorically contraindicated:
- pregnant women;
- nursing mothers;
- children under 6 years of age.
All types of cyclamens are poisonous, respectively, traditional medicine made on their basis may well do more harm than good.
Therefore, the main requirement for treatment with alpine violet is a mandatory consultation with a doctor before the start of the procedure and strict adherence to his recommendations.
Also, you should not carry out cyclamen treatment for those who are not sure of the diagnosis of their disease.
Use in landscape design
Cyclamen is often used as decoration for a veranda, gazebo or patio, for decorating flower beds and borders. The cyclamen looks especially beautiful and organic on alpine hills or in the form of a beautiful flowering carpet, consisting of several groups.
All types of garden cyclamens look very good against the background of conifers.: junipers, thuja or undersized varieties of spruce.
Blooming street cyclamen is able to effectively set off the openwork foliage of the fern.
However, despite the high endurance, not all plant varieties are able to survive outdoors and this must be taken into account when choosing a plant variety for placement in outdoor conditions.
Cyclamen is unpretentious in care, but requires certain conditions for proper growth and flowering.
Location and lighting
Cyclamen loves bright sunlight without direct sunlight, therefore it is recommended to place the plant near the northern windows, the north-west and north-east sides are also acceptable. It is also acceptable to place the plant in the shade of larger green pets.
The most suitable temperature for a cold-loving cyclamen is + 6 ° C + 12 ° C, which makes the plant not the most desirable guest in warm rooms.
However, many hybrid varieties are much easier to tolerate room temperature, therefore, if it is difficult for the owner to provide a cold room, then it is worth giving preference to the more thermophilic varieties of the "Greek handsome".
At the same time, drafts should be avoided - despite the high endurance, the plant does not accept them.
How to care during a rest period - step by step instructions
The dormant period for cyclamens is quite long - it takes from 5 to 9 months, depending on the variety and age of the plant.
After the plant has bloomed and shed its leaves, it should be placed in a dark, cool place. In this case, the pot is transferred to a horizontal position (put on its side). Watering and feeding the plant by this time should have already been stopped.
Approximately 2-3 months before the expected start of flowering, the plant is taken out of wintering, exposed to sunlight and lightly watered the soil, spraying the soil along the edge of the pot and avoiding flooding the tuber.
After the appearance of the first leaves, the flower is transplanted into a new pot and caring for it becomes standard.
With active growth, cyclamen requires sufficient, but not excessive, watering. It is possible to determine that the plant needs watering by the dried layer of earth around the flower, which takes on a grayish color. It is recommended to water the alpine violet with settled water at room temperaturewhich is fed into the pallet (bottom irrigation).
For the most optimal watering, the pot is placed in a container with water, the top layer of the soil is waited for, after which the pot is removed from the water and placed in a deep pan to drain excess moisture. This method of watering also avoids getting the tuber wet at the point of growth, which often leads to rotting of the plant.
Important! It is impossible to allow stagnation of moisture in an earthen coma formed around the root of the plant - this will inevitably lead to its death.
Humidity: what should be it and how to provide it?
Cyclamen prefers high humidity and frequent spraying with slightly cool, settled water, which also allows you to reduce the air temperature in the room by a couple of degrees.
During the rest period, spraying, like watering, should be stopped.
For normal growth and development, cyclamen requires loose soil with a large amount of organic impurities. The plant does not tolerate an excess of mineral salts, so you should be extremely careful with fertilizers.
The primer can be purchased at specialized stores or made on your own.
On the shelves of flower shops, you can easily choose the soil suitable for each plant, taking into account its characteristics and needs. The main advantage of purchased soil is the fact that its composition is determined by professionals, which guarantees high quality and the absence of negative side reactions of the plant, of course, if the soil is made by a reliable manufacturer that complies with all the necessary standards for its production.
The finished soil mixture for cyclamen should contain sand, perlite, humus and the main soil: leaf or sod.
The following soil grades have good characteristics:
- "Saintpaulia" (Garden of Miracles);
- Florin is universal;
- "Terra-vita" is universal.
It is desirable to add perlite and sand to the soil.
Made by yourself
For self-production of soil suitable for an alpine violet, mix in equal parts:
- perlite / agroperlite / pre-steamed coarse sand;
- leafy ground;
Small pebbles or small pebbles are better suited for drainage.
The main requirement for a cyclamen pot is a small size: the distance filled with earth from the bulb to the wall of the pot should be no more than 2-3 cm on the sides and no more than 5 cm in depth. It is necessary to have a pallet and drainage holes at the bottom of the pot, since this plant prefers bottom watering.
The material of the pot is not important and depends more on the preferences of the owner - cyclamen will feel good in a ceramic or clay pot, it is possible to grow it in plastic, although in this case you should be more careful about watering, avoiding stagnation of moisture.
Alpine violet is the ideal plant for hanging planters in cool, windless places where it thrives very well.
Top dressing and fertilizers
At the very beginning of the growing season, cyclamen needs regular feeding, which is carried out with a weak solution of a complex mineral fertilizer that does not contain chlorine and is suitable for flowering indoor plants.
Top dressing is carried out 1 time in 2 weeks. Before feeding, the soil should be shed along the edge of the pot - this will protect the roots from burns.
Special preparations used for feeding alpine violets:
As a rule, the preparations are diluted in a ratio of 0.5 caps of the agent per 1 liter of settled softened water (unless a different proportion is given in the instructions).
During the growing season, any feeding of cyclamen should be carried out in very small quantities so as not to interfere with the formation of flowers.
Top dressing is completely stopped during the rest period of cyclamen, as well as in case of diseases and after the withering away of the ground parts.
Cropping - step by step instructions
After the end of the flowering period, the cyclamen needs pruning, which is carried out in the following order:
- withered and dried flowers are cut off at the tuber itself, trying not to damage the growing point;
- the leaves are removed by "twisting" - twist the leg of the leaf until it moves away from the root together with the petiole; trimming leaves for cyclamen is undesirable;
- the plant prepared for the dormant period is transferred to a dark cool place and the pot is laid on its side.
Emergency pruning caused by plant diseases or pests is carried out in the same manner. Only in this case, measures are taken to treat the plant and maintain the incubation period, which it spends mainly in a dark, cool room.
First care after purchase
As a rule, the owners prefer to purchase an already flowering cyclamen, and not a bulb sleeping in the ground, which entails certain difficulties, since it is categorically not recommended to transplant a flowering plant: it must bloom, shed its leaves and rest.
At the beginning of the growing season, the owner needs to decide whether to transplant the plant into a larger pot or replace the pot for any other reason.
Do not worry if the plant drops leaves and flowers 1-2 days after purchase. - this behavior is considered natural for cyclamen, since it needs to get used to the new environment. In this case, the best that the new owner can do is to create the most comfortable conditions for the plant by placing it in a bright and cool place and providing watering and spraying.
After purchase, it is not recommended to feed the plant for 2-4 months, since the flowers prepared for sale are usually well fertilized for a long time.
Blooming at home
Depending on the variety, the characteristics of the plant's life cycle and the basics of caring for it, cyclamen blooms either in summer or in winter.
Optimal flowering conditions:
- a lot of scattered light;
- temperature from + 10 ° C to + 20 ° C;
- bottom watering / watering into the pallet;
- immediate pruning of wilted flowers.
With proper care, the flowering period of cyclamen is 3 or more months.
If the cyclamen does not bloom
First of all, the flowering of cyclamen is impeded by too high air temperature (+ 22 ° C and above), insufficient watering and humidity. After removing these obstacles, flowering does not take long.
What to do after flowering?
The end of the flowering period can be seen by the gradual yellowing of the leaves of the plant, which indicates the preparation of the cyclamen for the dormant period.
If the leaves turn yellow after the flowering period, the plant should be moved to a shaded place, cut off the dried flowers, remove the leaves ("twisting") and gradually reduce its watering.
Correct and timely transplantation is an important step in caring for any home plant.
When necessary, desirable and undesirable
A cyclamen transplant is necessary:
- when signs of damage to the plant appear (rot, pests, diseases);
- when the plant is too large.
It is also advisable to carry out a prophylactic transplant of cyclamen once every 2-3 years, while the plant can be moved to a larger pot and, if necessary, separated.
For no particular reason, do not touch the plant during the dormant period and during the period of abundant flowering.
Requirement for soil and pot
We list the requirements necessary for the transplanted flower to feel good and soon begin to delight its owner with a beautiful and abundant flowering.
Cyclamen requires a very small pot. The basic rule is that the distance from the edge of the bulb to the wall of the pot should be about 2-3 cm. It is this size that will ensure proper nutrition of the cyclamen and guarantee its abundant flowering.
For any stage of transplanting a flower, a special soil for cyclamens is required, consisting of the following components:
- 2 pieces of parboiled earth;
- 1 part of a suitable potting mix (tulip or terravita);
- 0.5 part river sand for loosening.
Plant transplant stages:
- the flower is watered abundantly to simplify the process of taking it out;
- the plant is carefully removed from the pot along with an earthen lump, which should not be peeled off unnecessarily;
- for preventive purposes, the plant is treated with a Fundazol solution, which prevents the appearance of bacterial and fungal diseases and has an acaricidal effect (protecting against spider mites);
- the prepared pot is filled with a layer of expanded clay (for drainage), fresh earth is laid out on top;
- the flower bulb, together with an earthen lump, is placed in a new pot and carefully sprinkled on the sides with new earth, while it is worth remembering that the European type of cyclamen is placed in the ground for almost its entire length, and the Persian one is no more than 2/3;
- the soil is well compacted;
- the transplanted plant is watered through the pallet no earlier than 5 days after transplanting.
Important! The transplanted cyclamen will need fertilizers no earlier than in 1-2 months.
In the open field, cyclamen should be planted in the shade of tall trees and shrubs, which will protect the flower from direct sunlight and drafts. For open ground, leaf and sod land is used, and limestone crushed stone is well suited as drainage.
To increase the vitality of the flower, the bulb should be planted at a depth of at least 10-15 cm, which will allow the plant to overwinter in mild climatic conditions, covered by fallen leaves from the trees. In colder areas, the plant should be transplanted into a pot for the winter and moved indoors.
Reproduction: step by step instructions
Cyclamen reproduces in several ways.
Unlike many plants, growing cyclamen from seeds is not the most difficult procedure, usually carried out in February-March and consisting of the following stages:
- on the eve of planting, the selected seeds are soaked in a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate or in specialized preparations Epin or Zircon (when preparing them, follow the instructions);
- fill suitable containers with a special earthen mixture for cyclamens;
- a groove with a depth of 1 cm is formed in the ground and well filled with water;
- seeds are laid out in a groove 2-3 cm apart and sprinkled on top with a layer of soil;
- the container is covered with glass or film;
- placed in a room with a temperature of 18 ° C-20 ° C.
The seeds of most varieties of cyclamen germinate in 30-60 days.... But some slow-growing varieties take 5-6 months to germinate. At the first shoots, the shelter is removed, and the containers are rearranged to a lighted place away from direct sunlight.
After the appearance of two true leaves, the plant dives - 2-3 seedlings are planted in one pot, covering the tubers completely with soil. After another 6-7 months, the plant is transplanted into pots with a diameter of 6-7 cm.
At the final transplantation, the root bulbs should be deepened, depending on the type of cyclamen:
- European type - completely covering the tuber with soil so that the growing point still remains above the soil surface;
- Persian and other varieties with a straight vertical root - leaving the tuber 1/3 above the surface.
With proper care, you can expect the plant to bloom after 18 months.
Dividing a tuber is a much less popular way of propagating cyclamen. For such a division, only those tubers are suitable for which several points of growth have formed.
However, the tuber is a very vulnerable spot of the plant, so very often the process of its separation ends in failure and leads to the death of the flower.
Reproduction by tubers is usually carried out after the flowering of cyclamen and is carried out in the following order:
- the corm is removed from the pot and dries well;
- the tuber is carefully cut, separating the growth points with a sharp knife or scalpel;
- the places of the cuts are sprinkled with charcoal;
- dried separated tubers are planted in separate pots with pre-prepared soil suitable for cyclamen;
- the plant is watered and monitored for temperature.
Since the Persian and other plant species simply do not have leaves with roots, only the European type of cyclamen lends itself to leaf propagation and it should be carried out in the following order:
- the plant is examined and suitable leaves are selected - it is worth giving preference to medium-sized leaves, without yellowness and damage;
- the leaves you like (no more than 2 pieces at a time) are cut off with a sharp knife and placed in water until the roots appear; water should be settled, it should be regularly replaced with fresh (previously settled and brought to room temperature);
- drainage is placed in a prepared small pot with a bottom layer, and on it - prepared in advance (calcined in the oven for 1 hour) soil, suitable for cyclamen;
- when roots appear on a leaf, the plant is transplanted into moist soil and greenhouse conditions are created for it: cover with a jar, provide regular watering;
- if everything goes well and the plant takes root, then after 2-3 weeks the roots will grow and a new shoot will appear.
Important! Unfortunately, reproduction by leaves is extremely rarely successful, therefore it is not recommended to use this method exclusively.
Division by daughter tubers
Many varieties of cyclamen, mainly of the European type, are characterized by the appearance of daughter bulbs on the mother tuber. Reproduction by such "daughters" is the simplest and easiest way to plant cyclamen.
Reproduction by tubers is usually carried out when transplanting a flower and consists of the following stages:
- the plant is watered;
- removed from the pot along with an earthen lump;
- examine for injuries and diseases, if detected - carry out treatment;
- carefully separate the daughter growths from the main root with a sharp knife or scalpel;
- the places of the cuts are processed (sprinkled with charcoal, washed with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, other methods are used) and left for 15-20 minutes to dry;
- the separated tubers are planted in separate pots with prepared soil suitable for cyclamen.
It is important to monitor the moisture content of the earth, avoiding increased moisture, overdrying or warming.
Diseases and pests
With proper care, cyclamen, like most houseplants, is not afraid of diseases or pests. However, violation of the principles of its content can lead to diseases and contribute to the appearance of insects, which - with an untimely reaction - is quite capable of destroying the plant.
Consider the main signs of diseases and how to cope with them.
Bacterial diseases and their treatment
Bacterial diseases are mainly caused by bacteria harmful to the flower and require immediate treatment, which, unfortunately, is not always effective.
The causes of such diseases are violations of the plant care regimen: too moist or dry soil and air, lack or excess of light, etc. Disease transfer from soil, moisture and other plants is also possible.
What plant diseases are classified as bacterial?
Symptoms - sudden wilting of plants, drooping of leaves and peduncles from the pot, unpleasant putrid odor, decay of roots.
Cause - bacteria enter the plant through the cracks in the tuber or vegetative organs. The source is contaminated water or sick green neighbors.
Unfortunately, such a plant can no longer be saved.
Root gall nematode
Symptoms - the plant lags behind in growth, looks painful, does not throw out the buds for flowering. The root system is covered with knotty swellings that resemble beads.
Treatment - the plant cannot be restored, requires immediate destruction.
Symptoms - dead spots appear on the leaves, which do not have clearly defined boundaries.
Feature - the disease spreads quickly in humid and warm conditions.
Treatment. The main method of fighting bacteria and the diseases they cause is high-quality prevention.
It is necessary to strictly adhere to the rules of watering and moistening, disinfect the soil during transplanting, during planting - pour boiling water over the pot or treat it with a manganese solution.
You can try to save the infected flower by cutting off the affected parts deeply and treating the cut sites with a Bordeaux mixture or copper-containing preparations.
Fungal lesions cause spores of fungi, which multiply if the plant conditions are not followed.
The main fungal diseases of cyclamen include the following.
Symptoms - yellowing of the tops of the leaves, followed by their wilting.
Treatment - spraying and watering under the root with solutions of special fungicidal preparations.
Cyclamen quickly leads to death.
Symptoms - depressed spots on the surface of leaves, tubers, peduncles.
Treatment - termination of watering, plant transplantation with preliminary fungicide treatment.
Another disease caused by the fungus "Botrytis", which is carried by air or is present in poor quality soil. It develops well in high humidity and cold air, as well as when watering water into the outlet of leaves and buds.
Symptoms - characterized by the appearance of grayish soft tissues on flowers and leaves.
Treatment - plant isolation, removal of damaged areas, fungicide treatment, transplanting into new soil.
It occurs when the soil is waterlogged in combination with a warm climate.
Symptoms - loss of decorativeness of flowers, drying of leaves.
Treatment - similar to fusarium.
This infection is spread by several pests at once: aphids, mealybugs and scale insects.
The plant takes on an ugly look, which in itself is not too dangerous, but it clogs the stomata and closes the leaf from light, which leads to a slowdown in growth and subsequent death of the plant.
The main way to fight - destruction of pests and sanitization of the bush with copper-soap solution. Treatment with fungicide is allowed.
Symptoms: if you notice the following, what does it mean and what to do?
How to help a flower if the following symptoms are noticed:
- "Weeping" brown-black spots on tubers and leaf petioles - the plant is probably affected by root rot, the necessary treatment should be carried out;
- yellowing leaves with continued flowering indicate that the plant is hot and should be placed in a cooler place and sprayed more often; at the same time, if the leaves began to turn yellow after the end of the flowering period, then there is nothing to worry about - in this way the cyclamen simply prepares for the dormant period;
- yellowing leaves and green petioles - probably too hard water containing chlorine is used for irrigation, watering should be normalized and soft settled water should be used;
- yellowing and falling leaves - if there are no signs of disease or insect damage, then the plant probably simply goes into dormancy, you should reduce watering and exclude feeding; during the period of activity, these symptoms indicate heat, high humidity and constant exposure to sunlight;
- brownish "dry" spots on leaves and flowers - possibly burns from direct sunlight; you should transfer the flower to a shaded place or draw the curtains;
- short-term poor flowering or its complete absence is also caused by improper irregular watering in combination with a dry climate and poor unsaturated soil; it is worth increasing the humidity and fertilizing the soil - and the plant will begin to bloom;
- flowers "hiding" under the leaves are typical for plants that are in too damp and cold conditions, irregularly watered, do not have access to sunlight; the conditions for keeping the flower should be normalized;
- a grayish "fluffy" bloom on buds and blossoming flowers indicates a high humidity of the room, coupled with cold and stale air; increase the humidity level, add access to sunlight and plaque will disappear.
The main reasons for the appearance of pests on the flower are disturbances in plant care: excess or lack of water in the pan, hot temperatures, dry air, excess or insufficient sunlight, improperly selected soil. Therefore, the main way to combat pests is to eliminate the source of infection and establish an irrigation regime.
The main pests for cyclamen are:
Mainly affects leaf axils. Loves heat, dryness, lack of drafts.
It is destroyed by two-stage spraying (Karbofos, Fozalon) with an interval of 7-10 days.
An almost invisible pest that covers the inner surface of the leaf and folds of flowering buds with islands resembling dust or mold. Able to destroy the plant in just 2-3 weeks.
The reason for the appearance is too high air temperatures and humidity.
Consequences - the growth of the plant slows down, the leaves turn yellow, twist and fall off.
Treatment - the sick flower is isolated, immersed together with the pot in a basin with sufficiently hot water (about 45 ° C) for 15-20 minutes, while constantly monitoring the temperature, if necessary, adding boiling water to the basin. The damaged parts are removed with a sharp knife or scissors. The plant is taken out of boiling water, dried and left in a dark place for 2-3 days.
Nimble flying bugs damage the leaves, leaving traces on their surface in the form of sticky silvery smudges, which gradually burn through the leaves.
The reason is low humidity and hot weather.
Treatment - treatment with insecticides (Apache, Arrivo, Akarin - 5 ml of the drug per 0.5 L of warm water).
For prevention, it is possible to use special trap tapes.
An incredibly fast and dangerous insect, which can only be dealt with if the disease is at its initial stage. The scale insect kills the plant in 1-2 weeks, while it is practically insensitive to folk remedies for prevention.
Treatment is practically useless. You can try to collect insects from the leaves with a soft brush and spray the bushes with insecticides.
As a preventive measure, it is recommended that the plants be treated with Aktara and Aktellik alternately every 2 weeks for 2-3 months.
Another pest that quickly sucks out juices from the plant, which leads to stunted growth, curling and drying of the leaves.
At the first stage of infection, it is very easy to cope with aphids - just wash off the aphid clusters from the leaves with ordinary soap or garlic infusion and treat the flower with Aktar or Commander, according to the instructions.
For prevention, folk remedies help well, for example, an infusion of onion peels.
Where and how can you buy?
The price of cyclamen is not too high and largely depends on the age of the plant, its variety and condition. So, tubers and seeds, as well as the adult plants of common varieties themselves, can be purchased in almost any flower shop at a cost comparable to the price of a set lunch.
But individual copies of non-standard varieties will cost much more, and they will most likely have to be purchased through the websites of foreign online stores.
Important! Experts advise you to grow cyclamens from seeds on your own, since purchased plants are more likely than others to be susceptible to diseases and pests.
How to choose what to look for?
Certain types of cyclamen are very sensitive to high temperatures, so before purchasing it is worth consulting with the seller and assessing how convenient it will be for the new owner to maintain the temperature required by the plant.
You should also pay attention to the following points:
- the leaves of the purchased flower should be elastic to the touch, dense and raised;
- the root is smooth and moist.
The best period for acquiring a plant is October and November.
Alpine violet is one of the few plants that it is advisable to purchase in flower shops, avoiding online shopping. However, if buying online is necessary, it is worth paying more attention to studying the manufacturer, seller and methods of flower delivery.
In general, if the manufacturer and seller are reliable and trusted companies that pay much attention to preserving the presentation of the plant, then purchasing it via the Internet will not bring any difficulties.
Cyclamen is a wonderful and beautiful plant that can decorate any room: an office, an apartment, a summer cottage. Not requiring too much maintenance, the flower gives an unforgettable light and pleasant aroma, pleases with incredibly bright and delicate coloring and good responsiveness to proper care of it. The plant, which looks like a swarm of butterflies perched on bright green leaves, will especially delight its owners with frosty winter days, bringing a little sun, light and summer warmth into their lives.