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In the business of growing carrots, every stage is important: seed preparation, sowing, care, watering.
No less important is the stage of collecting the long-awaited harvest and laying it for storage, because the indicators of the “keeping quality” of the culture directly depend on how competently this will be done.
If important nuances are not taken into account, then the development of diseases or the appearance of pests is provided for your entire crop.
- Diseases... Plant disease is a pathological process that occurs in a plant under the influence of pathogens (infectious disease) or unfavorable environmental conditions (non-infectious disease), which lead to the death of a plant or its individual parts, their deformation.
The causative agent of infectious diseases is various microorganisms:
- Pests... Pests are living microorganisms that harm or feed on a plant, as a result of which the plant does not develop correctly or die. Pests are complex organisms:
Reasons for defeat
- Violation of crop rotation. Ideally, if the carrots are planted in the area after:
- Refusal to treat soil with fungicides at the site of sowing carrots and crop seeds. In order to avoid contamination of future plants with infectious diseases and damage by pests, it is advisable, before sowing carrots, to treat the seeds and soil with fungicides purchased in specialized stores or solutions with a similar effect prepared at home.
- Thickened crops, a large number of weeds, systematic waterlogging of the soil.
- Irregularity and untimely watering is the main reason for root crops cracking. As a result of a violation of the integrity of the peel of a plant from the environment, numerous microorganisms - disease provocateurs - can enter the fruit.
- Mechanical damage to the root crop (scratches, cuts, etc.). Any violation of the integrity of the root crop entails the unhindered penetration of various microorganisms into the vegetable - pathogens.
- Late harvesting is one of the most common reasons that can cause increased multiplication of microorganisms.
- Storing freshly dug root crops. Experienced gardeners advise: before lowering the carrots into the basement, you must leave them outdoors to dry for several hours.
- Placing root crops for storage without preliminary sorting.
Before being sent to the cellar, carrots must be reviewed and sorted out all "defective" specimens, otherwise they, sooner or later, will become an excellent breeding ground for the development of pathogens.
- Placing the harvest in a pre-untreated cellar for storage. Pathogens left over from last year's harvest can "settle" on the walls of the store, on racks, and containers.
It is highly likely that they are activated when the humidity rises and will begin to infect new roots. Therefore, before sending a vegetable for storage, it is necessary to treat the walls and floor in the storage with special solutions.
- Incorrect storage conditions for root crops.
Next, you can see photos of diseases and pests of carrots.
- Alternaria (black rot) is a root vegetable disease caused by the fungus Alternaria. Outwardly, the disease is easy to recognize: dark, slightly depressed dry spots appear on the roots, on which, under the influence of high humidity, first a gray, and then almost black plaque is formed.
The stain penetrates into the tissue by 1 - 1.5 cm, has clear boundaries and a coal-black color.
- White rot (sclerotinosis) is a dangerous disease that affects vegetables (root crops). The disease is fungal in nature: the mycelium penetrates the tissues of the plant, making them soft and forming a white cotton bloom.
At first, the color of the root crop remains the same, but after that the carrots are completely covered with white "cotton wool", the color changes from white to black, and drops of water appear on the surface.
As a result, the root crop looks like a soft mass, and the rot infects the neighboring vegetable.
- Wet bacterial rot - an infectious fungal disease, the development of which occurs during the period when the fruits are in the vegetable store.
Outwardly manifests itself in the form of dark brown spots - dents in the upper part of the root crop, which later become covered with a layer of mucus, soften and fall inside. In the final phase, the carrots decompose into an unpleasant smelling substance.
- Gray rot (botridiosis) is a plant disease caused by a fungus, which is an optional (partial) parasite. A sign of infection is the presence of brown, watery lesions on carrots, which over time make the tissue loose, wet and soft.
Gradually, the entire surface of the root crop is covered with gray spots - myceliums, on which filamentous sclerotia develop, which are easily capable of infecting all nearby crops.
- Fomoz (dry or brown rot) is an infectious fungal disease that can affect the disease at different stages of plant development. The disease begins to manifest itself from the tip of the root crop: against a bright background, gray depressed spots and stripes become clearly visible.
In these places, the tissue gradually collapses, becomes soft and loose, acquires a dark brown color. As a result, the plant can become hollow.
In the garden
- Bacteriosis - a disease caused by a fungus, which manifests itself in the form of yellow spots on the tips of the leaves, which eventually turn brown. The same spots appear on the stems of plants, and on root crops the lesions appear in the form of brown spots similar to ulcers.
- Brown spot - a disease caused by a fungal infection. The disease begins to manifest itself through the tops of the plant, which becomes dirty brown and brittle. Over time, the leaves begin to dry, and the area with the affected plants looks like a burnt field.
- Felt disease (scab, rhizoctonia, red rot) is a fungal disease that manifests itself in lead-gray spots with a reddish-purple tint. Over time, the roots wither, crack, and shrink or rot.
- Root deformation - this is a consequence of non-compliance with agrotechnical requirements for caring for root crops or damage to carrots by nematodes (pests). When removed from the soil, a curved, forked, gnarled root crop is observed.
- Powdery mildew - an infectious disease caused by 2 fungi at once. Signs of infection include the appearance of yellow spots on the tops, which cause, gradually expanding, the death of leaves. The death of the rhizome with infection does not die, but it grows in an ugly shape.
- Soft bacterial rot (bacterial cancer) is an infectious disease that causes carrots to rot while still in the soil. In the initial stage, soft white growths begin to grow rapidly in the root crop, which subsequently become hard and dark.
At the end of the growing season, these "tumors" are destroyed, while destroying the plant.
- Cercospora - a disease caused by a pathogenic fungus. It manifests itself in the form of small rusty spots on the tops of the crop, with a relatively light middle. Gradually, the leaves begin to curl, and the root crop stops developing.
The appearance of pests on carrots is an alarming signal that requires an immediate response from the gardener.
Otherwise, in a matter of days, he risks being left without a crop. The most common harmful organisms are:
- Carrot fly... Most often, it hibernates in pupae deep underground, therefore, primarily a root crop suffers from an insect. A clear sign of the presence of such a pest is the tops, which gradually change their color from green to bronze, and then dries up altogether.
- Naked slugs eat carrot tops, eat out large areas directly on root crops. A characteristic sign of their presence is a white, shiny trace, noticeable to the naked eye.
- Wireworm - a yellow worm about 3 cm long. This insect feeds on root crops, leaving numerous "eaten" holes in it.
- Carrot aphid becomes visible almost immediately: a large number of small green insects "populate" the leaves of carrots, as a result of their vital activity, the greens begin to curl and dry. The result is the impossibility of the root crop to fully develop.
- Exclamation scoop feeds on the root part of the plant and the root crop, leaving holes and holes behind, which makes carrots unsuitable for human consumption.
Prevention and control of them
Fungi, bacteria, viruses
- A competent choice of a variety that is as resistant to various diseases as possible.
- Presowing treatment of seeds and soil with fungicides or antiseptic solutions prepared at home.
- Compliance with the rules of crop rotation.
- Implementation of competent watering of the plant.
- Observance of accuracy when harvesting and transporting it.
- Drying the crop immediately after harvest.
- Thorough inspection of each root crop, "rejection" of low-quality specimens.
- Treatment of premises and containers for storage with special antiseptic solutions.
- Compliance with the optimal storage conditions for the culture.
Insects, worms, arachnids and others
- Timely plowing, loosening and removal of weeds.
- Pretreatment of the soil with special preparations, the main purpose of which is the destruction of insect larvae.
- Compliance with the rules of crop rotation.
- In case of detection of a pest - immediate treatment of crops with special preparations bought in a store or prepared with his own hand.
Watch a video on how to protect carrots from diseases and pests:
By remembering several important requirements, the gardener will be able to avoid mistakes made in the process of growing and storing carrots. This means that for the whole winter it will be provided with a juicy and useful root crop from its own reserves.